By Robert A. Stebbins
For fifteen years, Robert Stebbins has performed huge learn on amateurs and pros in theatre, track, archaeology, astronomy, baseball, soccer, magic and stand-up comedy. His courses supply the subject matter of great relaxation in-depth scholarly cognizance. this article brings jointly the findings of this learn venture to supply a theoretical framework that finds the commonalities throughout those 8 fields. all through this venture Stebbins has outfitted at the paintings of Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss and their inspiration of "grounded theory". First, Stebbins generally saw the regimen actions of amateurs and pros in every one box studied. Then, as he grew to become extra accustomed to the life-styles of the individuals, he carried out long, unstructured, face-to-face interviews with, more often than not, 30 novice or specialist respondents. every one box demanded targeted equipment of statement, research, interviewing, probing and reporting. up to attainable, even if, Stebbins requested comparable questions of all respondents in all fields with a view to let generalizations throughout those different fields. the outcome was once a "substantive grounded concept" of every box studied. Stebbins has built a "formal grounded idea" of amateurs and execs according to the examine collected in all 8 significant fields. by means of transcending a number of contexts, he argues, you may achieve a extra enduring appreciation of the weather that impact peoples' reviews in paintings and spare time activities. A evaluate of the findings throughout this wide selection of actions, together with his findings and ideas on hobbyists and profession volunteers, enabled Stebbins to derive greater definitions of the most options of the venture, resembling "amateur", "the public", and "serious rest" -- in addition to "professional", the place he distinguishes among client-centred and public-centred execs who, whereas sharing various ideal-typical attributes, range as to the ability and keep watch over they've got over their paintings in a democratic society. He offers inductive conclusions approximately careers and the prices and rewards within the 8 amateur-professional fields thought of. He examines the exterior global of amateurs and execs within the gentle of such matters as kinfolk ties, kinfolk between amateurs and pros and between amateurs and their employers, public photographs, critics and newshounds, group contributions, and the query of marginality for amateurs who're stuck among the paintings global of the pro and the informal rest international of nearly all of the inhabitants. He concludes with an exploration of the long run position of great rest when it comes to predictions of better unemployment and elevated relaxation time and sturdiness.
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Additional info for Amateurs, Professionals, and Serious Leisure
Given the occurrences today of strikes, slowdowns, and unionization among such professionals as teachers, doctors, and professors, one might wonder if this notion of a calling, in particular, is still a valid indicator of professionalism. In other words, has greed not replaced the selfless commitment of yesteryear? No definitive research exists with regard to this question. There are certainly signs, however, that the work of such professionals is at least as important to them as the money they gain from it.
First and foremost, entertainers share the difficult goal of amusing audiences in ways that are sufficiently appealing to lead to a career in their art, whether amateur or professional. 4 Professionals master a generalized cultural tradition associated with their line of work. This cultural tradition may be stronger in the art, sport, entertainment, and perhaps even the scientific domains than in, say, the legal, medical, or religious areas. One explanation is that, if for no other reason, the publics of the first set have an interest in the respective traditions and, therefore, help to keep them alive.
Although these definitions avoid the aforementioned weaknesses, the macrosociological version, which defined amateur as part of a professional-amateur-public (PAP) system of relations and relationships, had to undergo several important modifications. First, I came to realize that the earlier version of "functionally interdependent relationships" was erroneous and simplistic. For instance, although the relations and relationships can, indeed, be functional, they may also be dysfunctional. Moreover, at times they conflict and, at other times, they are harmonious.
Amateurs, Professionals, and Serious Leisure by Robert A. Stebbins