By Richard A. Bryant PhD
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Additional resources for Acute Stress Disorder: What It Is and How to Treat It
Directly experiencing the traumatic event(s). Witnessing, in person, the event(s) as it occurred to others. 3. Learning that the event(s) occurred to a close family member or close friend (must be violent or accidental event). 4. , emergency responders collecting human remains). B. Presence of nine or more of the following symptoms that began or worsened after the traumatic event(s): Intrusions 1. Recurrent, involuntary, and intrusive memories of the traumatic event(s). 2. Recurrent distressing dreams related to the traumatic event(s).
1999) Holeva et al. (2001) Fuglsang et al. (2004) Balluffi et al. Prospective Studies of the Relationship between ASD and PTSD in Adults ASD in DSM-5 33 approach. This is not surprising because when using this strategy we are not being so restrictive in terms of the symptom constellation that trauma survivors need to satisfy. Three longitudinal studies defined subsyndromal ASD as not requiring the dissociative cluster. These findings suggest that focusing on general posttraumatic stress symptoms, rather than the more restrictive requirement of dissociation, allows more people who eventually develop PTSD to be identified in the acute phase.
1 presents a summary of these longitudinal studies. In this table we see that 19 longitudinal studies were conducted in adults surviving trauma that included initial assessment of ASD. Several findings emerge from these studies that need to be discussed. First, we see that the rates of ASD varied from 7 to 59%, with an average of 19%. Remembering that the initial function of ASD is to identify people in the acute phase who suffer severe posttraumatic stress, this rate seems reasonable. If the ASD diagnosis was identifying many more people than this, it raises questions of whether it is overly liberal and identifying understandable stress reactions that are probably not severe enough to warrant mental health intervention.
Acute Stress Disorder: What It Is and How to Treat It by Richard A. Bryant PhD