By James F. Adams, Samuel Merrill III, Bernard Grofman
The authors clarify how events and applicants place themselves at the Left-Right ideological size and different factor dimensions. Their unified theoretical method of voter habit and social gathering techniques takes under consideration voter personal tastes, voter's partisan attachments, anticipated turnout, and the positioning of the political established order. The method, proven via large cross-national research, contains reports of the plurality-based two-party contests within the U.S. and multiple-party festival in France, Britain, and Norway.
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Extra resources for A Unified Theory of Party Competition: A Cross-National Analysis Integrating Spatial and Behavioral Factors
Xml CY518/Adams 0 521 83644 1 Modeling Party Competition March 2, 2005 13 elections of 1980, 1984, 1988, 1996, and 2000 that support the theoretical expectations, although the divergence that results from the threat of abstention is modest. Consistent with the Chapter 7 results, we find that the candidates’ equilibrium positions are shaded in the direction of their partisan supporters. Chapter 9 deals with the 1997 British election. Even though the British election is for members of Parliament rather than for a president as in France, and is a first-past-the-post system rather than a PR system as in Norway, the equilibria for these three countries are similar, although the British equilibrium is less dispersed.
We begin with a four-dimensional, policy-only model that involves voter and party locations on an ideological scale and three policy scales. This framework is then extended to a unified model that includes a number of sociodemographic characteristics of the voters, especially partisanship. xml CY518/Adams 12 0 521 83644 1 March 2, 2005 A Unified Theory of Party Competition least the three major candidates, the equilibrium strategies correlate with the perceived locations of parties and with the partisan mean locations of the voters but are considerably more centrist.
8 Note that the discounting factor dk as defined here is equal to (1 – dk ), as defined in Merrill and Grofman (1999). xml CY518/Adams 26 0 521 83644 1 March 2, 2005 A Unified Theory of Party Competition There is a simple relationship between the level of discounting, specified by the value of d, and the policy position that must be advocated by a candidate if voters are to anticipate policy implementation at a specific position. 0. Thus if voters discount candidates’ capacities to implement the policies they advocate, the candidates can be expected to advocate policies that are more extreme than those the voters actually want – in fact, more extreme by approximately the factor 1/(1 − d).
A Unified Theory of Party Competition: A Cross-National Analysis Integrating Spatial and Behavioral Factors by James F. Adams, Samuel Merrill III, Bernard Grofman