By Kazuko Hirose Kawaguchi
The skill to form one's personal destiny-to make judgements at the foundation of one's personal beliefs and goals-is a uniquely human attribute. it's shared by way of the teams that people fonn-peoples, countries, and different communities--each certain by means of a typical future. The very life of alternative contributors and teams that experience this attribute almost promises that there'll be conflicts between them. And but it's also human to need to discover universal floor with others. while participants or teams emphasize their variations, the result's clash; once they locate universal floor, cooperation turns into attainable. even if, even if it seems that cooperative efforts have resolved the resources of clash, no longer all clash will disappear. clash is a average a part of all human interplay. either clash and cooperation exist concurrently. All social phenomena can eventually be diminished to the query of the way those human features are reconciled and allowed to coexist at the related plane.
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Additional info for A Social Theory of International Law: International Relations as a Complex System
I will explain these points below in a series of steps. The explanation replicates the logic of structural-functional analysis, which, in this study, I have situated as a part of systems theory by specifying its formal principles in this way. 1 The Goal(s) of a System A system has one or more goals. Sociologists call such a goal a reference, functional requisite,functional prerequisite, or simply afunction. However, I will conceptualize goal(s) as being distinct from the concept function. Whether the goal is formulated ab initio or while the system is operating, or achieved in an ex post facto way, the goal of a system is not achieved 10 As used herein, function is an analytical concept and 'activity' is the corresponding empirical concept.
Pp. 257-83. 31 The Basic Concepts of Systems Theory State Figure 13. The state as a system State State State Figure 14. The state as an actor If, after having defined an action as the special correspondence between an input, x, and an output, y, I then say that a system emerges from the interaction process of two or more actions, this statement can be misconstrued as meaning that I view the system (say, the relationship between two persons) as fixed or static. In other words, it might be taken to mean that-assuming the system is in equilibrium-the interaction between actors E and A maintains a certain state, or, to put it the other way around, that interaction occurs between E and A in such a way that a certain state is maintained.
If one considers Japan's goal to be achieved solely by means of domestic arrangements, one is eliminating the roles of systems AI and A2 from The Theory ofAction Systems 38 consideration; 'one-state pacifism' and the pursuit of unilateral prosperity are examples of this kind of thinking. An investigator is always free to isolate particular functional interactions according to the purpose of his or her research, but one must not forget that even the smallest entity in a complex society exists in a web of interactions with its still-smaller constituent entities, larger entities that contain it, and other entities that coexist alongside it, and that the existence of anyone of these entities impacts in some way, however small, the existence of an infinite array of other entities.
A Social Theory of International Law: International Relations as a Complex System by Kazuko Hirose Kawaguchi