By Gordon Martel
A spouse to Europe 1900-1945 ВОЕННАЯ ИСТОРИЯ, ИСТОРИЯ Издательство: Blackwell Publishing LtdСерия: Blackwell partners to ecu historyАвтор(ы): Gordon MartelЯзык: EnglishГод издания: 2006Количество страниц: 587ISBN: 978-1-4051-0664-1Формат: pdf (e-book)Размер: 4,35 mb RAPIDили IFOLDER zero
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Additional info for A Companion to Europe 1900-1945
Thus, in Soviet Russia, then fascist Italy, and finally in Nazi Germany, there was little nostalgic yearning to restore the world of 1900; instead, they promoted a “futurist” vision of a new society that would harness the power of modernity to overcome the limitations imposed by history and tradition. Mass communications and massive assemblies would allow a charismatic leader to mobilize his nation, race, introduction: europe in agony 1900–1945 xxix or class to an unparalleled extent; individuals and groups, customs and laws that stood in the way would be, had to be, marginalized, removed, or destroyed.
Thus was the new Europe designed to endure for as far into the future as anyone could foresee; sorting out the frontiers between the national states was difficult and messy, but with good will to guide those who drew the boundaries, and with a new League of Nations to assist in resolving disagreements, the grievances and instability that had plagued the old Europe would gradually disappear. Thus was the Europe of the interwar years simultaneously old and new. The peacemakers of 1919 had recognized both the complexities of national identities and ambitions and the power that nationalism had to undo their efforts – and had created a new international code of behavior in the form of “Minority treaties” which sought to give rights to minorities that had been created by their frontier adjustments and to protect them from the majority.
Crime and Policing Even the most cursory glance at trends in crime and policing during the first half of the twentieth century shows the extent to which they were intertwined with the themes of urban life and poverty discussed above. In the first instance, crime and criminality remained closely associated with the urban environment by both popular and academic writers. In the academic milieu, the distinction made by Weber, urbanization, poverty, and crime 13 Durkheim, and others between rural and urban life has already been noted.
A Companion to Europe 1900-1945 by Gordon Martel